SQL Centre of Excellence

Ok, this topic comes up all the time and I partially feel like I’m going to get less work out of posting it, by giving away some trade secrets, but its all in the public domain anyway. So here goes…

The scenario is you are an experienced Infrastructure manager considering purchasing a new SAN and you have lots of workloads to consider: File and Print, VMware servers, exchange, SQL Server, ERP’s, Web Servers and lots of application servers. For a lot of these workloads you just tell the SAN guy how much space you need and away you go.

But, what are the sort of questions your going to want to ask a SQL consultant to help with storage design for your SAN. I’ve made up ten questions that I think are quite common

1. What are the storage requirements for SQL Server?
2. Why can’t I use the 128k or 1MB block size JimBob recommended?
3. What the best RAID Types and disk speeds for SQL Server ?
4. How do I measure what my current SQL Server needs ?
5. Any special Cache Settings?
6. Can I share SQL Server with my other workloads?
7. How do I know that my storage meets SQL Servers requirements?
8. How do I convince the SAN vendor to meet SQL Servers requirements?
9. How do I know if things are working well or not ?
10. Useful links on SQL IO and Storage Area Networks

1. What are Storage Requirement for Running SQL Server

The magic numbers that every SQL consultant has in his back pocket are 8- 20 ms and 1-5 ms  ;-)

This means that the number one requirement for SQL Server is that when it requests information from the disk subsystem or writes to it it MUST get the information back fact enough. If it does not it will kind of go into “throttle mode” and slow down the IO process.

Your SQL Server will be split into three basic components: Data files,  log files and TempDB

  • Data files must have a response time averaging about 8ms and a maximum response time of around 20ms. This is the windows performance counter “Logical Disk: Disk Secs/Transfer”
  • Log Files must have a response time averaging from 1-5ms. The Log files are often the most important thing to consider as log writes can be synchronous in nature so those users will be waiting a lot if the log disks are slow.
  • TempDB performance must be about the same as data files (1-8ms). If a SQL consultant has performance a review of your workload and warned of “heavy” TempDB usage, then placing TempDB on your fastest disk subsystem will bring a lot of benefit.

Additionally we can assume the following workload characteristics

  • Assume that data files use 64k size IOs and that are random in nature and both reading and writing is performed by SQL.
  • Assume that log files use 64k IO size and are sequential in nature, only writing.
  • assume that an OLTP workload like your ERP or Navision is 60% reads and 40% writes. If you have existing SQL workloads you should establish that answer to “what is my read/write ratio”. It is very common that we see storage optimised for read performance when the workloads is 90% writes!

It really is that simple in that latency is the ONLY real requirement SQL Server has, everything else is just guidance to help you meet this requirement!! if your IO requests that SQL server issues to your SAN meet those figures then you have a highly performance storage subsystem and happy SQL Server users.

The main thing to specify apart form your latency requirement is the throughput (IOPs). It is no good meeting the 8ms target for 100 IOPs and then finding your workloads needs 5,000 IOPs. You wont be able to meet the 8ms target!!

2. Why can’t I use the 128k or 1MB block size JimBob recommended?

Well if you can meet that 8ms for data and 1ms for log writes target, then knock yourself out, use a 5MB block size for all SQL Server cares ;-)

But realistically, you really need to use a 64k block size. There have been hundreds if not thousands of empirical tests showing that if the block size is larger than 64k then you will get a massive drop in latency and not meet the requirements for running SQL Server. For example if the block size is 512K, then the SAN will need to return 512k when SQL Server has only asked for 64k, this could take 8 times longer right…

3. What the best RAID Types and disk speeds for SQL Server ?

Nowadays most SQL consultants try and not talk about RAID types and types of disk, it can be best to leave that up to the storage guys. If the storage team can meet my requirement for 5,000 random 64k read/write IOPs at 8ms latency by using 50 old SATA drives at 5,400 rpm in RAID 5 then knock yourself out – I’m happy. Well maybe I’m happy till we have that chat about Service Level requirements during a disk degrade event but that's a different story…

Unfortunately we often do have to discuss RAID or disk speed because the core requirements are not met, so we need to optimise what we have to lower latency at the target IOPs.

As a rule of Thumb

  • RAID 5 is generally optimised for read operations and will often give you a performance hit, maybe an extra latency of 1-2 ms or so. It is therefore a poor candidate for logs buy may be a good candidate for read intensive data volumes. It is probably a poor choice for “TempDB” as TempDB is very write intensive. The golden rule here is “know your read/write ratio”. If your workload is 80% reads then maybe raid 5 will work for you.
  • RAID 10 is generally optimised better for writes and all round performance. It is usually the best choice for TempDB and Logs.
  • RAID 1 (Mirror) is when you only have one spindle in a disk group. This is generally considers the holy grail for configuring log files – one disk per log file. This is because a single disk can deliver extremely fast and reliable sequential writes which is perfect for log files. Now why don’t we just put every log on its own disk ? Cost is the main factor, so what we generally recommend is IF you have a huge SQL Server that needs the very best in performance then place the log files on their own RAID 1 disk. Otherwise your going to want a RAID 10 pool for sharing log files.
  • RAID 6 is the new kid on the blog. Often is is preferred over RAID 5 as RAID 5 sucks when a disk degrades. The switch from RAID 5 to RAID 6 usually happens if there is a conversation about guaranteed server levels during a disk degradation event.

4. How do I measure what my SQL Server Needs?

Easy. Just run the perfmon counters “Logical Disk: Disk Writes/Sec and Logical Disk: Disk Reads/Sec”. Over a period of time this will tell you your average IOP’s needed and your maximum IOPs needed.

If you have SCOM installed then the windows management pack actually captures these metrics, aggregates them up to the hour mark and puts them into a data warehouse. give us a shout and we will gladly come in and suck the data out and present it in a nice report. We will even add reports in to SCOM so you can get this data out at the push of a button.

You should quickly be able to now say. “I need 750 IOPS made up of 250 writes and 500 reads”

Two words of warning:

1 – don’t use the average figure to specify requirements or else SQL Server will become dog slow during peak usage. Consider specifying the maximum or some figure in between.

2. If your target IOPS is 1,000 then you probably don’t want to run the storage subsystem “hot”. Agree with your storage teams what sort of headroom is needed. E.g. My sql server needs 1,000 IOPS. Can you give me a storage subsystem that can do 2,000 IOPS at a latency of 8ms please.

5. Any special Cache Settings?

Well, If the storage can meet my requirement for 5,000 random 64k read/write IOPs at 8ms latency by using standard SAN cache settings, then who cares right!! knock yourself out.

But, if you need to optimise the storage to lower latency then then are a few common tricks:

  • read cache is pretty much useless for SQL Server. the reasoning is that SQL Server uses most of its memory (when over 2GB) for the buffer pool which is basically its own disk cache. It therefore won’t really ever request the same block from the SAN. Change that read cache to only 10% or off.
  • If the SAN cache is “overloaded” with writes in some cases, disabling the write cache and the cache “mirror” to the other controller can help. This is not a blanket recommendation though, it is something to test when desperate..

6. Can I share SQL Server disks with my other workloads on the SAN ?

Well, If you can run exchange, VMware and all other workloads with SQL Server and still meet my requirement for 5,000 random 64k read/write IOPs at 8ms latency then knock yourself out !!

Otherwise a side effect of sharing SQL Server storage with other workloads is that SQL Server may have to sometimes wait longer than it would hope for (8-20ms) and this will cause performance issues.

As a rule of thumb. Sharing SQL Data volumes with other workloads “can” sometimes be beneficial. For example rather than each get 1.5 disks, your 10 workloads can now enjoy 15 spindles.

As another rule of thumb, sharing log files is generally a no-no. This is because the log files need sequential IO and the sharing of workloads will degenerate this entire IO pattern to random.

As a third rule of thumb. The Service Level Agreement is king. If the end users of your SQL Server need “guaranteed” performance of max 50ms per query, then you will need to supply the SQL Server with storage that can guarantee “8ms” per IO request. Sharing disks with exchange might not be such a good idea here.

7. How do I know that my storage meets SQL Servers requirements?

This is quite easy. there is a freely available tool called “SQLIO.EXE” which you can run and it will output the amount of IOPS that the volume can do along with avg and max latency figures. the results look something like the sample below

sqlio v1.5.SG
using system counter for latency timings, 3306972 counts per second
parameter file used: param.txt
    file E:\testfile.dat with 1 thread (0) using mask 0x0 (0)
1 thread reading for 120 secs from file E:\testfile.dat
    using 64KB random IOs
    enabling multiple I/Os per thread with 6 outstanding
using specified size: 5000 MB for file: E:\testfile.dat
initialization done
CUMULATIVE DATA:
throughput metrics:
IOs/sec:   500.59
MBs/sec:    31.28
latency metrics:
Min_Latency(ms): 0
Avg_Latency(ms): 8
Max_Latency(ms): 690

histogram:
ms: 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24+
%:  1  1  4 10 11 13 15 10  8  6  4  3  2  2  1  2  1  1  1  1  1  0  0  0  4

Note that in the example above although the max_Latency is recorded as 690ms, we can see that 96% of the IO did return in 20ms or under, so this might be very acceptable.

If you speak you your friendly SQL consultant (cough Prodata) they will have some hand rolled tool that automates SQL IO measuring and presents back a nice graph that looks something like:

image

We can see from the chart above that the storage can sustain 8,944 IOPS and still hit SQL requirements (8ms avg and 20ms max). As it goes beyond that the SAN is saturated and latency massively increases.

8.How do I convince the SAN vendor to meet SQL Servers requirements?

Most of the conversations I have with poor SAN performance are based around the scenario where requirements are not met. how do you convince the SAN team or vendor to help meet the basic requirements for running SQL Server?

Well, ultimately its going to cost cash. There are some quick wins we discussed: block size, raid type, increasing the spindle count, and volume alignment. It may also need some help from a performance tuning specialist to highlight bottlenecks in IO such as HBA cards, switches, VMware environment slack of multipathing, or driver related.

The “best” advice is to convince your SAN vendor to let you test their SAN BEFORE you pay it. pre sales help is a lot cheaper that post sales. In Ireland a lot of the SAN manufacturers even have performance centres and know a lot about SQL Server. Not favouring anybody, but a big shout out to the EMC guys who regularly attend every advanced SQL training seminar there is going in Ireland and really know their stuff.

If you can go armed with your requirements (remember: 5,000 random 64k IOPS at 8-20ms), they can show you a configuration meeting those requirements and everyone will be happy.

9. How do I know if things are working well or not ?

Apart from your SQL users moaning you will know if your storage is causing a performance problem for SQL Server by using a few techniques:

The most basic is the windows perfmon counters discussed, You can monitor the IOPS and latency. If you are seeing consistent latency > 20ms then you have a problem.

Another route is to check SQL Server’s wait stats. SQL Server records every single time a query is halted from running due to resource waits and you can query these to see what the biggest problems are. At a high level:

  • the WRITELOG wait stat indicates that the log file cannot be written to fast enough
  • PAGEIOLATCH or ASYNC_IO_COMPLETION and IO_COMPLETION is a sign of potential disk subsystem issues.

10. Useful links on SQL IO and Storage Area Networks

Storage Top 10 Best Practices

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-ie/library/cc966534(en-us).aspx

Complete I/O Best practices whitepaper - http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/sql/bestpractice/pdpliobp.mspx

Predeployment I/O Best Practices - http://sqlcat.com/whitepapers/archive/2007/11/21/predeployment-i-o-best-practices.aspx

SQLIO.EXE Tool

SQLIO Disk Subsystem Benchmark Tool 

Disk partition Alignment – Make the Case by Jimmy May

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/jimmymay/archive/2009/05/08/disk-partition-alignment-sector-alignment-make-the-case-with-this-template.aspx

Performance  Tuning with Wait Stats by Joe Sack

http://www.digitalconcourse.com/dropzone/MSCOMM/PASSMN/PASSEVT20090616/Joe%20Sack%20Performance%20Troubleshooting%20with%20Wait%20Stats.pdf

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